Escrito por  2016-09-21

Pontes e viadutos que imitam natureza podem ser indestrutíveis

(0 votos)

A professora Wanda Lewis, da Universidade de Warwick, no Reino Unido, levou ao próximo nível um processo de design inspirado no mundo natural.

Um nível que promete nada menos que uma nova geração de pontes, viadutos e outras estruturas virtualmente indestrutíveis.

O processo de design é conhecido como "busca pela forma", ou "geração de forma" (form-finding). Ele permite a concepção de estruturas rígidas que seguem uma forma natural, ou seja, estruturas que são sustentadas por uma força pura de compressão ou tensão, sem tensões de flexão, que são os principais pontos de fraqueza nas estruturas feitas pelo homem.

Essa técnica poderá, pela primeira vez, viabilizar o projeto de pontes e edifícios que arquem com qualquer combinação de carga permanente sem gerar tensões complexas, o que lhes daria maior segurança e maior durabilidade.

Estruturas projetadas pela natureza

A estrutura de uma árvore ou mesmo de uma folha, a curvatura de uma concha, a forma como um filme de sabão se sustenta em grandes vãos, são todos exemplos de projetos naturais de grande eficiência e resistência.

A professora Lewis desenvolveu agora modelos matemáticos que analisam esses princípios da natureza e geram padrões de estresse simples para cada estrutura. Os princípios que sustentam os modelos matemáticos são ilustrados usando experimentos de "geração de forma" que envolvem peças de tecido ou correntes.

Um pedaço de tecido, por exemplo, é suspenso e então relaxa na sua forma natural de energia mínima, puxado apenas pela gravidade. Em seguida, sua forma final é congelada em um objeto rígido, e então invertido. Isto produz uma forma natural - gerada unicamente pela ação da gravidade - que pode suportar cargas com grande eficiência.

Estética arquitetônica

Talvez não saia ao gosto dos olhos dos arquitetos, mas as formas resultantes têm uma resistência que não encontra equivalentes nos conceitos de engenharia convencionais.

"A estética é um aspecto importante de qualquer projeto, e nós fomos programados para ver algumas formas, como arcos circulares ou cúpulas esféricas, como estéticas. Nós frequentemente as construímos independentemente do fato de que elas geram tensões complexas, e são, portanto, estruturalmente ineficientes," defende Lewis.

socialshare

share on facebook share on linkedin share on pinterest share on youtube share on twitter share on tumblr share on soceity6

1874 comentários

  • Ira

    Je cherche une femme pour marriage getaways
    cherche personne pour sortir
    rich kid college list
    speed dating tokyo
    where is the love 2016 lyrics
    Rencontre sur internet issues issues
    blog rencontre amoureuse
    Cest un 404 page non trouve interracial dating minneapolis
    what percentage of byu students are mormon
    Serencontrer rencontre et vous de rencontres ilovia entre
    Personals pierson florida bbw dating-sexy lips-available women
    nice jewish guy
    Relation srieuse voire mariage rencontre femme senior de 60
    Blanc je cherche mari okamoto mariage
    Site zon pt
    is it easy to date in japan
    paris rencontres
    free international dating sites for marriage
    Vignette are40 tutorial programming planning practice exam
    Comment trouver lamour les 5 questions se poser
    je veux
    american citizen marrying a foreigner
    Ille-et-vilaine 35 rencontre gratuite - petites annonces rencontre
    Cherche homme pour rencontre lisbienne nazca wikipdia
    forrest wheeler
    just widower dating
    Est le meilleur site de rencontre
    Je veux trouver une femme of a certain age
    same height couples problems
    meetcrunch avis forum
    quotatis france
    - rencontre femmes clibataires loire atlantique - site
    de cherche
    Free adult dating gay chat dating sms chat uk
    lyce ferney voltaire pronote
    De chat avec les femmes de la diarrhe
    Black women with white males interracial dating sites dallas dallas

    Link do comentário Segunda, 25 Setembro 2017 16:00 postado por Ira
  • Maggie

    http://tiggi.es/howtogetcoinsinpokemongo14540 http://Lis.ovh/hackpokemongo72291 http://to.ht/pokemongocheatsandroid78344 http://tiggi.es/howtogetcoinsinpokemongo14540 http://s.uhuc.de/howtogetcoinsinpokemongo86617 http://wtfim.co/hackpokemongo94297 https://url.codeworldwide.com/howtogetcoinsinpokemongo86855 http://smarturl.co/howtohackpokemongo29027 http://wtfim.co/hackpokemongo94297 http://Bit.ly/2hp3nTF http://tinyurl.com/pokemongohackandroid98067 http://youl.ink/howtogetcoinsinpokemongo89785 http://tinyurl.com/pokemongohackandroid98067 The Bengali film industry has become there since 1890sed a great deal and so gets the variety of film lovers.
    Unfortunately, the Go Cart Track must be closed to produce opportinity for these developments.

    But Nothing To Do With You expose another side of The Pigeon Detectives.

    Link do comentário Segunda, 25 Setembro 2017 14:39 postado por Maggie
  • free auto insurance quotes Hyattsville MD

    123+2 dit :des bonnes vieilles clarcks (ça sécrit comme ça ?), yavait que ça de vrai !ça me donne envie de remettre la paire qui me reste, tiens, mais avec nos -10°, pas sûre que ce soit assez chaud !la photo où vous sautez est top !cest Mr Chéri qui les a prises ?je joue pour les 2 paires, bien sûr ! Conception artistique: moi  réalisation technique : lui

    Link do comentário Segunda, 25 Setembro 2017 14:29 postado por free auto insurance quotes Hyattsville MD
  • GoloaKnicsDD

    cialis kamagra available

    cialis canada

    buy cialis online

    only here womans cialis

    Link do comentário Segunda, 25 Setembro 2017 13:53 postado por GoloaKnicsDD
  • us agency car insurance Altoona PA

    PLEASE CHECK OUT MY CHANNEL! I WILL SUB4SUB WITH ANYONE, AND I ACCEPT ALL FRIEND INVITES. PLEASE HELP ME GET 10,000 CHANNEL VIEWS! THANKSPLEASE CHECK OUT MY CHANNEL! I WILL SUB4SUB WITH ANYONE, AND I ACCEPT ALL FRIEND INVITES. PLEASE HELP ME GET 10,000 CHANNEL VIEWS! THANKS

    Link do comentário Segunda, 25 Setembro 2017 13:26 postado por us agency car insurance Altoona PA
  • German

    Magnificent items from you, man. I have keep in mind your stuff previous to
    and you're simply too great. I really like what you've bought right here, certainly like what you are stating and
    the way in which through which you are saying it. You're making it entertaining and you still care
    for to keep it wise. I can't wait to learn far more from you.

    That is really a tremendous website.

    Link do comentário Segunda, 25 Setembro 2017 13:05 postado por German
  • auto owners insurance Palm Beach Gardens FL

    gold has intrinsic value but much of the value gold currently has is based on speculation that it might be remonetised. If and when that hope is dashed then the value of gold will plummet.

    Link do comentário Segunda, 25 Setembro 2017 12:32 postado por auto owners insurance Palm Beach Gardens FL
  • Mei

    As Election Day draws near, medical marijuana” has turn into a scorching
    subject, and plenty of have asked me about my position concerning
    constitutional Amendment 2. That's simple: I'm personally against
    the amendment as a result of I do know it's a ruse that will create defacto-legalization of marijuana in Florida.
    Again, you possibly can solely purchase marijuana for medical use with a
    health care provider's advice until a minimum of January 2018.
    The right way to Get Your Online $forty nine Physician's Advice and Marijuana.
    Step 3: Purchase a $49 Physician's evaluation for a marijuana advice.
    Step 4: In minutes, Skype video convention with a licensed Physician and discuss your symptoms
    that marijuana may show you how to with. Step 7: Obtain your FREE
    consultation and gift along with your first Papa Ganja legal marijuana order and delivery.
    California legalized medical marijuana by way of Prop 215 in 1996, sure over 20 years in the past!
    Since then, doctors have been able to suggest” marijuana to sufferers to treat their signs.


    It's known as a California medical marijuana recommendation because doctors can not legally prescribe” marijuana so long as it is unlawful below federal law.
    At present, marijuana is a Schedule 1 drug and remains illegal
    at the Federal degree. Nonetheless, the Federal authorities has stated that
    medical marijuana is a States challenge and has promised to allow States to
    set their very own path right here. Upon getting
    a doctor's consent by way of a California
    medical marijuana recommendation, you can also register with the
    state of California and receive a medical marijuana card.

    In Orange County and all of California, medical
    marijuana supply services and stroll-in dispensaries will settle for your
    advice in written letter format signed by a licensed Physician.

    PrestoDoctor has helped thousands of patients safely and securely
    obtain medical recommendations for his or her
    ailments by direct video chat with our staff of medical doctors, and there are a number of issues we've heard over and over from Californians
    needing real medical therapy. The best way to keep away from
    these risks is to make use of a trusted on-line supplier like PrestoDoctor.
    The mixture of convenience, safety protocol and fast turnaround on medical playing cards - most are
    obtained within 2-3 days - makes it the best option for anybody looking for
    a convenient, efficient medical hashish recommendation in California.


    In the long term, legalization of leisure marijuana is predicted
    to pose challenges for cannabis docs. To maintain purchasers,
    many medical pot clinics are planning to rebrand to
    broader holistic services. Some also are relying
    on new consumers wanting a physician's steerage before trying pot, whilst a recreational experiment.
    I do really feel there is going to be greater interest,”
    said Dr. Jean Talleyrand, founder of MediCann , a network
    of medical marijuana clinics in California. California's medical marijuana law, handed in 1996, supplies individuals a authorized
    protection for using pot if they have a doctor's recommendation saying they have a condition that could possibly be relieved with marijuana treatment.


    Talleyrand, a former public well being physician and pressing care physician at San Francisco Common Hospital who founded MediCann in 2004, acknowledges
    that medical marijuana use turned blurred with recreational use.
    Just as many individuals sought out medical doctors for critical situations, he said, other gave
    the impression to be in search of legal cover to devour pot.

    At its peak in 2011, his company had 21 clinics and had given out marijuana suggestions to more than 250,000 folks.

    More than half of the 1,655 patients surveyed mentioned pot helped them
    loosen up, and 14 % mentioned it served as a substitute for alcohol.



    At 420 Med Evaluations, lead physician Dr. Deborah Klaisle said
    she thinks extra people are coming into her clinic for medical recommendations out of a
    sense that pot use is more reliable” because of
    Proposition sixty four. Her clinic expenses
    $55 for recommendations ($45 for repeat prospects).
    In Colorado, the number of folks getting medical
    marijuana suggestions fell off only marginally after that
    state legalized recreational use in 2012 and opened pot stores for non-medical
    consumers in January 2014. Colorado had more than 128,000
    people with medical recommendations in 2011. One issue
    working against a bigger drop-off is worth: In Colorado, leisure users
    pay a 15 percent excise tax and a 10 percent marijuana retail tax, in addition to state and native gross sales tax for
    marijuana products.

    The business decline, she stated, is extra more likely to affect the doc-in-the-box places” - the clinics doling
    out low cost marijuana suggestions with little medical counsel.
    If all they're doing is giving out a chunk of paper
    saying you are authorized, their business will likely be diminished,” Malka said.
    She charges $a hundred and twenty to counsel patients on hashish use as part of a holistic well being routine which will include psychoactive marijuana strains or nonpsychoactive flowers, tinctures and salves.
    In 1925, possession, which had beforehand been handled the
    same as distribution, grew to become punishable by as much
    as 6 years in prison, and black market sale, which had initially been a misdemeanor punishable by a $100-$four hundred tremendous and/or 50-a hundred and
    eighty days in jail for first offenders, grew to become punishable by 6 months-6
    years.

    Critics resembling John Lovell, lobbyist for the
    California Peace Officers' Association, argued that too many
    people already struggle with alcohol and drug abuse , and legalizing one other thoughts-altering substance would result in a surge of use, making issues worse.
    On November eight, 2016, Proposition sixty four ,
    also known as the Grownup Use of Marijuana Act, passed by a vote of
    57% to forty three%, legalizing the sale and
    distribution of hashish in each a dry and concentrated form.
    California is one in every of eight states where recreational hashish utilization is authorized, together
    with Alaska , Colorado , Maine , Massachusetts , Oregon , Washington, and Nevada Adults
    are allowed to own up to one ounce of hashish for leisure use and may grow as much as six
    stay vegetation individually or more commercially with a license.



    Possess, transport, buy, acquire, use, manufacture, or give
    away marijuana paraphernalia to peoples the age of 21 or older.
    Possess, ingest or smoke inside 1,000 feet of a day care, faculty, or youth heart while kids are current (besides within a personal residence and
    if stated smoke is just not detectable to stated kids).
    Legal sales for non-medical use are allowed by legislation starting January
    1, 2018, following formulation of new regulations on retail market by
    the state's Bureau of Medical Cannabis Regulation (to be renamed Bureau of
    Marijuana Control). Beneath Nevada regulation Las Vegas
    Releaf acknowledges and accepts out of state medical marijuana playing cards, which
    allows inter-state medical marijuana reciprocity.


    Possessing this doc additionally protects you from unjust authorized prosecution for the possession (see your county's local possession limits), transportation, or personal consumption of medical cannabis.
    That being stated, after the passing of Prop 64 in California (which legalized recreational hashish), you
    can expect to see far much less people getting in hassle
    with the regulation if cannabis is involved. Not only can patients suffering from serious medical
    illnesses and conditions equivalent to AIDS, cancer, and gastrointestinal issues reap the benefits of the medical potential and benefits of hashish use, people who are also experiencing
    pain and discomfort from ailments that can be relieved by hashish can be issued a
    recommendation as effectively.

    For those who're trying to skip the wait (and the difficult process) that comes along with going to the weed physician, simply
    discover any internet related system and head on over to.
    In the identical amount of time it takes to seek for hashish evaluations near me ,” you can get each
    your cannabis recommendation and card on-line, and immediately
    access the plethora of goodies obtainable for MMJ sufferers.
    NuggMD offers a authorized hashish analysis & advice-issuing service that enables sufferers to simply turn into a legal patient by a quick chat with a licensed California doctor.
    Remember to have a webcam ready, because you will then be connected directly with a doctor for a face-to-face evaluation.

    The cardboard additionally includes the doctor's signature and official authorities seal that's required
    with a view to be legally recognized. NuggMD's online
    service encompasses everything you'll want to gain access to the cannabis
    trade, so no matter in case you're a first time patient or a hashish vet,
    you'll be able to hop online and reap the benefits of their quick and handy evaluation, suggestion, renewal, and card issuing providers.

    And if for no matter motive you still wish to go to a medical
    marijuana doctor in-individual, it's quite straightforward to search out one in every major metro of California, from San Jose to Los Angeles and San Diego.


    That is no subject for medical cannabis patients in most medical cannabis jurisdictions, where authorities-issued medical
    cannabis playing cards are obligatory to obtain and use medical hashish.

    In California, most people enter dispensaries with letters or cards printed at doctors'
    workplaces. In accordance with the California Division of Public Health, 6,667 California Medical Marijuana
    Identification Cards were issued in fiscal yr 2015-2016.

    They quickly heard from us in the dispensary group,” said Jeff Grossman, assistant supervisor at The Dispensary in Reno,
    which, he said, serves many Californians visiting
    two close by locations, the Peppermill casino and Atlantis resort.


    We all know that people fly into Reno and keep on the resorts and inns,” stated Dunseath,
    who can also be president of the Reno Riverwalk Retailers Affiliation. A novel program licensed by
    Nevada's 2014 medical hashish legislation allowing qualified sufferers from any legal
    medical hashish state to purchase and use medical hashish in Nevada.
    In Arizona, Delaware, Maine, Michigan, New Hampshire and Rhode Island, reciprocity applications present authorized protections for out-of-state patients to possess medical
    cannabis according to the bounds of their residence states however do not permit entry to dispensaries.


    Guests from California, Maine, Maryland and Washington could present a
    legitimate physician's suggestion to make use of medical
    hashish; and valid government-issued picture identification —
    similar to they do at their house-state dispensaries till
    the Nevada Legislature guidelines in any other case. State ID playing cards
    are available by means of county health departments to folks with legitimate
    medical doctors' suggestions. Cards are legitimate for one yr and vary in value by county ($70 in Del
    Norte, $one hundred twenty in San Francisco, $153 in Los Angeles,
    $230 in Ventura and $279 in Mariposa). Folks from other medical cannabis states and the District of Columbia must present government-issued medical cannabis playing cards and authorities-issued ID.


    Dispensaries: Should be at the least 1,000 ft from a faculty or daycare
    heart; native municipalities have the authority to prohibit dispensaries of their group.
    Public Act 12-55 (An Act Regarding the Palliative Use) was signed into law by the governor on June 1, 2012.
    Sicknesses: cancer; glaucoma; constructive standing for HIV/AIDS; Parkinson's disease; multiple sclerosis;
    damage to the nervous tissue of the spinal twine with goal neurological indication of
    intractable spasticity; epilepsy; cachexia; losing syndrome;
    Crohn's disease; PTSD; or every other medical situation, medical therapy or disease authorized by the DCP.


    Sicknesses: Cancer; glaucoma; HIV/AIDS; hepatitis C;
    muscular dystrophy; Crohn's disease; agitation of Alzheimer's
    disease; multiple sclerosis; continual pancreatitis; spinal twine damage or disease; traumatic brain harm; or other sicknesses/situations that may be handled with hashish.
    Maine permits visiting qualifying medical marijuana sufferers with a sound
    medical marijuana identification to medicate inside the state.

    Dispensaries: Up to eight non-revenue dispensaries, one for each public
    health district, are allowed below state law. It allows a patient
    to defend in opposition to possession or cultivation expenses publish-arrest
    if she or he is able to successfully argue at trial that use of marijuana is
    a medical necessity.

    Diseases: Most cancers; glaucoma; HIV/AIDS; hepatitis C; muscular distrophy; Crohn's illness; a number
    of sclerosis; traumatic mind accidents; agitation of Alzheimer's illness;
    different diseases and situations that trigger critical symptoms identified to be
    relieved by the use of cannabis. Eligible patients
    with a physician's suggestion should submit an application to the state, which points identification cards.

    Possession: 2 ounces of usable marijuana per thirty days.
    New Mexico maintains a confidential state registry and points identification cards to qualified sufferers ( New Mexico Medical Marijuana:
    Affected person Application ). Patients who're beneath
    the age of 18 may qualify for the medical marijuana program with written consent from a
    guardian or guardian, along with a doctor's advice.

    Statute (bill, as signed by gov.): House Bill 523 , Amendments to authorize
    the use of marijuana for medical functions and to determine the Medical
    Marijuana Management Program. Rhode Island
    allows visiting qualifying medical marijuana patients with a valid
    medical marijuana identification to medicate within the state.
    Sicknesses: cachexia; cancer; glaucoma; hepatitis C; extreme or
    power pain; extreme nausea; epilepsy and other situations characterised by
    seizures; a number of sclerosis and different muscle spasticity disorders; Crohn's illness;
    Alzheimer's illness. Senate Bill 76 grew to become law within the absence
    of the governor's signature in 2004 and took effect later that 12 months.

    Link do comentário Segunda, 25 Setembro 2017 11:38 postado por Mei
  • payless auto insurance Downingtown PA

    Lets see&who else practices polygamy in Canada? My bet is on the Charter, even though we were told gay marriage WOULD NOT influence polygamy, it was a done deal, everyone knew it. Its only because this was a tiny sect with no political voting power that it didnt happen sooner. Now that some Muslims are also practicing polygamy in Canada, the power has changed. It will be interesting to see if the NDP change their tune on this issue.

    Link do comentário Segunda, 25 Setembro 2017 09:55 postado por payless auto insurance Downingtown PA
  • car insurance quotes Tustin CA

    Theme: I recently interviewed Eric Hamm. the creator of the Catalyst theme. BlogcastFM runs on the catalyst theme and so do many other really popular blogs like Zen Habits.Â

    Link do comentário Segunda, 25 Setembro 2017 09:17 postado por car insurance quotes Tustin CA

Deixe um comentário

Certifique-se de preencher os campos indicados com (*). Não é permitido código HTML.

Entre em contato conosco

Vamos falar sobre seu projeto! Clique em Contato e preencha o formulário que entraremos em contato o mais breve possível.

Contato